How can we rearrange an array of items in random order? A simple way is to manipulate the array by picking elements randomly. Or we can use Java Collections API. Shuffle an Array Write a loop to go through each…

How can we rearrange an array of items in random order? A simple way is to manipulate the array by picking elements randomly. Or we can use Java Collections API. Shuffle an Array Write a loop to go through each…

Definition of Pseudorandom Generators Two distributions \(X\) and \(Y\) over \(\{0,1\}^n\) are \((s, \epsilon)\)-indistinguishable if, for any circuit \(C\) of size at most \(s\), \[ \left| \Pr_X[C(X) = 1] – \Pr_Y[C(Y) = 1] \right| \leq \epsilon. \] A pseudorandom generator…

Randomness is an important computational resource, just as running time and memory space. Randomness sometimes is essential for designing algorithms. Randomness is useful! Quick Select In quick sort, a random pivot selection has the property that, for any input data,…